.gz file format: GraphViz block diagram (.dot) source

Gzip is a popular and standard single-file archiving format. It essentially provides a container that stores original file name, timestamp and a few other things (like optional comment), basic CRCs, etc, and a file compressed by a chosen compression algorithm.

As of 2019, there is actually only one working solution for compression algorithms, so it's typically raw DEFLATE stream (without zlib header) in all gzipped files.

File extension

gz

KS implementation details

License: CC0-1.0

References

This page hosts a formal specification of .gz file format using Kaitai Struct. This specification can be automatically translated into a variety of programming languages to get a parsing library.

GraphViz block diagram source

gzip.dot

digraph {
	rankdir=LR;
	node [shape=plaintext];
	subgraph cluster__gzip {
		label="Gzip";
		graph[style=dotted];

		gzip__seq [label=<<TABLE BORDER="0" CELLBORDER="1" CELLSPACING="0">
			<TR><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">pos</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">size</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">type</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">id</TD></TR>
			<TR><TD PORT="magic_pos">0</TD><TD PORT="magic_size">2</TD><TD>1F 8B</TD><TD PORT="magic_type">magic</TD></TR>
			<TR><TD PORT="compression_method_pos">2</TD><TD PORT="compression_method_size">1</TD><TD>u1→CompressionMethods</TD><TD PORT="compression_method_type">compression_method</TD></TR>
			<TR><TD PORT="flags_pos">3</TD><TD PORT="flags_size">1</TD><TD>Flags</TD><TD PORT="flags_type">flags</TD></TR>
			<TR><TD PORT="mod_time_pos">4</TD><TD PORT="mod_time_size">4</TD><TD>u4le</TD><TD PORT="mod_time_type">mod_time</TD></TR>
			<TR><TD PORT="extra_flags_pos">8</TD><TD PORT="extra_flags_size">...</TD><TD>switch (compression_method)</TD><TD PORT="extra_flags_type">extra_flags</TD></TR>
			<TR><TD PORT="os_pos">...</TD><TD PORT="os_size">1</TD><TD>u1→Oses</TD><TD PORT="os_type">os</TD></TR>
			<TR><TD PORT="extras_pos">...</TD><TD PORT="extras_size">...</TD><TD>Extras</TD><TD PORT="extras_type">extras</TD></TR>
			<TR><TD PORT="name_pos">...</TD><TD PORT="name_size">...</TD><TD></TD><TD PORT="name_type">name</TD></TR>
			<TR><TD PORT="comment_pos">...</TD><TD PORT="comment_size">...</TD><TD></TD><TD PORT="comment_type">comment</TD></TR>
			<TR><TD PORT="header_crc16_pos">...</TD><TD PORT="header_crc16_size">2</TD><TD>u2le</TD><TD PORT="header_crc16_type">header_crc16</TD></TR>
			<TR><TD PORT="body_pos">...</TD><TD PORT="body_size">((_io.size - _io.pos) - 8)</TD><TD></TD><TD PORT="body_type">body</TD></TR>
			<TR><TD PORT="body_crc32_pos">...</TD><TD PORT="body_crc32_size">4</TD><TD>u4le</TD><TD PORT="body_crc32_type">body_crc32</TD></TR>
			<TR><TD PORT="len_uncompressed_pos">...</TD><TD PORT="len_uncompressed_size">4</TD><TD>u4le</TD><TD PORT="len_uncompressed_type">len_uncompressed</TD></TR>
		</TABLE>>];
gzip__seq_extra_flags_switch [label=<<TABLE BORDER="0" CELLBORDER="1" CELLSPACING="0">
	<TR><TD BGCOLOR="#F0F2E4">case</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#F0F2E4">type</TD></TR>
	<TR><TD>:compression_methods_deflate</TD><TD PORT="case0">ExtraFlagsDeflate</TD></TR>
</TABLE>>];
		subgraph cluster__flags {
			label="Gzip::Flags";
			graph[style=dotted];

			flags__seq [label=<<TABLE BORDER="0" CELLBORDER="1" CELLSPACING="0">
				<TR><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">pos</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">size</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">type</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">id</TD></TR>
				<TR><TD PORT="reserved1_pos">0</TD><TD PORT="reserved1_size">3b</TD><TD>b3</TD><TD PORT="reserved1_type">reserved1</TD></TR>
				<TR><TD PORT="has_comment_pos">0:3</TD><TD PORT="has_comment_size">1b</TD><TD>BitsType1</TD><TD PORT="has_comment_type">has_comment</TD></TR>
				<TR><TD PORT="has_name_pos">0:4</TD><TD PORT="has_name_size">1b</TD><TD>BitsType1</TD><TD PORT="has_name_type">has_name</TD></TR>
				<TR><TD PORT="has_extra_pos">0:5</TD><TD PORT="has_extra_size">1b</TD><TD>BitsType1</TD><TD PORT="has_extra_type">has_extra</TD></TR>
				<TR><TD PORT="has_header_crc_pos">0:6</TD><TD PORT="has_header_crc_size">1b</TD><TD>BitsType1</TD><TD PORT="has_header_crc_type">has_header_crc</TD></TR>
				<TR><TD PORT="is_text_pos">0:7</TD><TD PORT="is_text_size">1b</TD><TD>BitsType1</TD><TD PORT="is_text_type">is_text</TD></TR>
			</TABLE>>];
		}
		subgraph cluster__extra_flags_deflate {
			label="Gzip::ExtraFlagsDeflate";
			graph[style=dotted];

			extra_flags_deflate__seq [label=<<TABLE BORDER="0" CELLBORDER="1" CELLSPACING="0">
				<TR><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">pos</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">size</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">type</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">id</TD></TR>
				<TR><TD PORT="compression_strength_pos">0</TD><TD PORT="compression_strength_size">1</TD><TD>u1→CompressionStrengths</TD><TD PORT="compression_strength_type">compression_strength</TD></TR>
			</TABLE>>];
		}
		subgraph cluster__subfields {
			label="Gzip::Subfields";
			graph[style=dotted];

			subfields__seq [label=<<TABLE BORDER="0" CELLBORDER="1" CELLSPACING="0">
				<TR><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">pos</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">size</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">type</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">id</TD></TR>
				<TR><TD PORT="entries_pos">0</TD><TD PORT="entries_size">...</TD><TD>Subfield</TD><TD PORT="entries_type">entries</TD></TR>
				<TR><TD COLSPAN="4" PORT="entries__repeat">repeat to end of stream</TD></TR>
			</TABLE>>];
		}
		subgraph cluster__subfield {
			label="Gzip::Subfield";
			graph[style=dotted];

			subfield__seq [label=<<TABLE BORDER="0" CELLBORDER="1" CELLSPACING="0">
				<TR><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">pos</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">size</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">type</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">id</TD></TR>
				<TR><TD PORT="id_pos">0</TD><TD PORT="id_size">2</TD><TD>u2le</TD><TD PORT="id_type">id</TD></TR>
				<TR><TD PORT="len_data_pos">2</TD><TD PORT="len_data_size">2</TD><TD>u2le</TD><TD PORT="len_data_type">len_data</TD></TR>
				<TR><TD PORT="data_pos">4</TD><TD PORT="data_size">len_data</TD><TD></TD><TD PORT="data_type">data</TD></TR>
			</TABLE>>];
		}
		subgraph cluster__extras {
			label="Gzip::Extras";
			graph[style=dotted];

			extras__seq [label=<<TABLE BORDER="0" CELLBORDER="1" CELLSPACING="0">
				<TR><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">pos</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">size</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">type</TD><TD BGCOLOR="#E0FFE0">id</TD></TR>
				<TR><TD PORT="len_subfields_pos">0</TD><TD PORT="len_subfields_size">2</TD><TD>u2le</TD><TD PORT="len_subfields_type">len_subfields</TD></TR>
				<TR><TD PORT="subfields_pos">2</TD><TD PORT="subfields_size">len_subfields</TD><TD>Subfields</TD><TD PORT="subfields_type">subfields</TD></TR>
			</TABLE>>];
		}
	}
	gzip__seq:flags_type -> flags__seq [style=bold];
	gzip__seq:extra_flags_type -> gzip__seq_extra_flags_switch [style=bold];
	gzip__seq_extra_flags_switch:case0 -> extra_flags_deflate__seq [style=bold];
	gzip__seq:compression_method_type -> gzip__seq:extra_flags_type [color="#404040"];
	gzip__seq:extras_type -> extras__seq [style=bold];
	subfields__seq:entries_type -> subfield__seq [style=bold];
	subfield__seq:len_data_type -> subfield__seq:data_size [color="#404040"];
	extras__seq:len_subfields_type -> extras__seq:subfields_size [color="#404040"];
	extras__seq:subfields_type -> subfields__seq [style=bold];
}