Qualcomm Snapdragon (MSM) bootloader.img format: Java parsing library

A bootloader for Android used on various devices powered by Qualcomm Snapdragon chips:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors

Although not all of the Snapdragon based Android devices use this particular bootloader format, it is known that devices with the following chips have used it (example devices are given for each chip):

(*) bootloader_size is equal to the size of the whole file (not just img_bodies as usual).

(**) There are some data after the end of img_bodies.


On the other hand, devices with these chips do not use this format:


The bootloader-*.img samples referenced above originally come from factory images packed in ZIP archives that can be found on the page Factory Images for Nexus and Pixel Devices on the Google Developers site. Note that the codenames on that page may be different than the ones that are written in the list above. That's because the Google page indicates ROM codenames in headings (e.g. "occam" for Nexus 4) but the above list uses model codenames (e.g. "mako" for Nexus 4) because that is how the original bootloader-*.img files are identified. For most devices, however, these code names are the same.

File extension

img

KS implementation details

License: CC0-1.0

This page hosts a formal specification of Qualcomm Snapdragon (MSM) bootloader.img format using Kaitai Struct. This specification can be automatically translated into a variety of programming languages to get a parsing library.

Usage

Runtime library

All parsing code for Java generated by Kaitai Struct depends on the Java runtime library. You have to install it before you can parse data.

The Java runtime library is published in the Maven Central Repository. Refer to the artifact page for instructions how to add it into your project with the build tool that you use.

Code

Parse a local file and get structure in memory:

AndroidBootldrQcom data = AndroidBootldrQcom.fromFile("path/to/local/file.img");

Or parse structure from a byte array:

byte[] someArray = new byte[] { ... };
AndroidBootldrQcom data = new AndroidBootldrQcom(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(someArray));

After that, one can get various attributes from the structure by invoking getter methods like:

data.bootloaderSize() // => According to all available `releasetools.py` versions from AOSP (links are
in the top-level `/doc`), this should determine only the size of
`img_bodies` - there is [an assertion](
https://android.googlesource.com/device/lge/hammerhead/+/7618a7d/releasetools.py#167)
for it.

However, files for certain Pixel devices (see `/doc`) apparently declare
the entire file size here (i.e. including also fields from `magic` to
`img_headers`). So if you interpreted `bootloader_size` as the size of
`img_bodies` substream in these files, you would exceed the end of file.
Although you could check that it fits in the file before attempting to
create a substream of that size, you wouldn't know if it's meant to
specify the size of just `img_bodies` or the size of the entire bootloader
payload (whereas there may be additional data after the end of payload)
until parsing `img_bodies` (or at least summing sizes from `img_headers`,
but that's stupid).

So this field isn't reliable enough to be used as the size of any
substream. If you want to check if it has a reasonable value, do so in
your application code.

Java source code to parse Qualcomm Snapdragon (MSM) bootloader.img format

AndroidBootldrQcom.java

// This is a generated file! Please edit source .ksy file and use kaitai-struct-compiler to rebuild

import io.kaitai.struct.ByteBufferKaitaiStream;
import io.kaitai.struct.KaitaiStruct;
import io.kaitai.struct.KaitaiStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.nio.charset.Charset;


/**
 * A bootloader for Android used on various devices powered by Qualcomm
 * Snapdragon chips:
 * 
 * <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors>
 * 
 * Although not all of the Snapdragon based Android devices use this particular
 * bootloader format, it is known that devices with the following chips have used
 * it (example devices are given for each chip):
 * 
 * * APQ8064 ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_S4_Pro))
 *   - Nexus 4 "mako": [sample][sample-mako] ([other samples][others-mako]),
 *     [releasetools.py](https://android.googlesource.com/device/lge/mako/+/33f0114/releasetools.py#98)
 * 
 * * MSM8974AA ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_800,_801_and_805_(2013/14)))
 *   - Nexus 5 "hammerhead": [sample][sample-hammerhead] ([other samples][others-hammerhead]),
 *     [releasetools.py](https://android.googlesource.com/device/lge/hammerhead/+/7618a7d/releasetools.py#116)
 * 
 * * MSM8992 ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_808_and_810_(2015)))
 *   - Nexus 5X "bullhead": [sample][sample-bullhead] ([other samples][others-bullhead]),
 *     [releasetools.py](https://android.googlesource.com/device/lge/bullhead/+/2994b6b/releasetools.py#126)
 * 
 * * APQ8064-1AA ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_600_(2013)))
 *   - Nexus 7 \[2013] (Mobile) "deb" <a href="#doc-note-data-after-img-bodies">(\**)</a>: [sample][sample-deb] ([other samples][others-deb]),
 *     [releasetools.py](https://android.googlesource.com/device/asus/deb/+/14c1638/releasetools.py#105)
 *   - Nexus 7 \[2013] (Wi-Fi) "flo" <a href="#doc-note-data-after-img-bodies">(\**)</a>: [sample][sample-flo] ([other samples][others-flo]),
 *     [releasetools.py](https://android.googlesource.com/device/asus/flo/+/9d9fee9/releasetools.py#130)
 * 
 * * MSM8996 Pro-AB ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_820_and_821_(2016)))
 *   - Pixel "sailfish" <a href="#doc-note-bootloader-size">(\*)</a>:
 *     [sample][sample-sailfish] ([other samples][others-sailfish])
 *   - Pixel XL "marlin" <a href="#doc-note-bootloader-size">(\*)</a>:
 *     [sample][sample-marlin] ([other samples][others-marlin])
 * 
 * * MSM8998 ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_835_(2017)))
 *   - Pixel 2 "walleye" <a href="#doc-note-bootloader-size">(\*)</a>: [sample][sample-walleye] ([other samples][others-walleye])
 *   - Pixel 2 XL "taimen": [sample][sample-taimen] ([other samples][others-taimen])
 * 
 * <small id="doc-note-bootloader-size">(\*)
 * `bootloader_size` is equal to the size of the whole file (not just `img_bodies` as usual).
 * </small>
 * 
 * <small id="doc-note-data-after-img-bodies">(\**)
 * There are some data after the end of `img_bodies`.
 * </small>
 * 
 * ---
 * 
 * On the other hand, devices with these chips **do not** use this format:
 * 
 * * <del>APQ8084</del> ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_800,_801_and_805_(2013/14)))
 *   - Nexus 6 "shamu": [sample][foreign-sample-shamu] ([other samples][foreign-others-shamu]),
 *     [releasetools.py](https://android.googlesource.com/device/moto/shamu/+/df9354d/releasetools.py#12) -
 *     uses "Motoboot packed image format" instead
 * 
 * * <del>MSM8994</del> ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_808_and_810_(2015)))
 *   - Nexus 6P "angler": [sample][foreign-sample-angler] ([other samples][foreign-others-angler]),
 *     [releasetools.py](https://android.googlesource.com/device/huawei/angler/+/cf92cd8/releasetools.py#29) -
 *     uses "Huawei Bootloader packed image format" instead
 * 
 * [sample-mako]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=96039337900113996 "bootloader-mako-makoz30f.img"
 * [others-mako]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-mako&type=files
 * 
 * [sample-hammerhead]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=385035244224410247 "bootloader-hammerhead-hhz20h.img"
 * [others-hammerhead]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-hammerhead&type=files
 * 
 * [sample-bullhead]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=11410963190603870177 "bootloader-bullhead-bhz32c.img"
 * [others-bullhead]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-bullhead&type=files
 * 
 * [sample-deb]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=23501681358552487 "bootloader-deb-flo-04.02.img"
 * [others-deb]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-deb-flo&type=files
 * 
 * [sample-flo]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=23991606952593542 "bootloader-flo-flo-04.05.img"
 * [others-flo]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-flo-flo&type=files
 * 
 * [sample-sailfish]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=6006931924117907154 "bootloader-sailfish-8996-012001-1904111134.img"
 * [others-sailfish]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-sailfish&type=files
 * 
 * [sample-marlin]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=6006931924117907131 "bootloader-marlin-8996-012001-1904111134.img"
 * [others-marlin]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-marlin&type=files
 * 
 * [sample-walleye]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=14943124697586348540 "bootloader-walleye-mw8998-003.0085.00.img"
 * [others-walleye]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-walleye&type=files
 * 
 * [sample-taimen]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=14943124697586348536 "bootloader-taimen-tmz30m.img"
 * [others-taimen]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-taimen&type=files
 * 
 * [foreign-sample-shamu]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=745849072291678307 "bootloader-shamu-moto-apq8084-72.04.img"
 * [foreign-others-shamu]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-shamu&type=files
 * 
 * [foreign-sample-angler]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=11410963190603870158 "bootloader-angler-angler-03.84.img"
 * [foreign-others-angler]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-angler&type=files
 * 
 * ---
 * 
 * The `bootloader-*.img` samples referenced above originally come from factory
 * images packed in ZIP archives that can be found on the page [Factory Images
 * for Nexus and Pixel Devices](https://developers.google.com/android/images) on
 * the Google Developers site. Note that the codenames on that page may be
 * different than the ones that are written in the list above. That's because the
 * Google page indicates **ROM codenames** in headings (e.g. "occam" for Nexus 4)
 * but the above list uses **model codenames** (e.g. "mako" for Nexus 4) because
 * that is how the original `bootloader-*.img` files are identified. For most
 * devices, however, these code names are the same.
 * @see <a href="https://android.googlesource.com/device/lge/hammerhead/+/7618a7d/releasetools.py">Source</a>
 */
public class AndroidBootldrQcom extends KaitaiStruct {
    public static AndroidBootldrQcom fromFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
        return new AndroidBootldrQcom(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(fileName));
    }

    public AndroidBootldrQcom(KaitaiStream _io) {
        this(_io, null, null);
    }

    public AndroidBootldrQcom(KaitaiStream _io, KaitaiStruct _parent) {
        this(_io, _parent, null);
    }

    public AndroidBootldrQcom(KaitaiStream _io, KaitaiStruct _parent, AndroidBootldrQcom _root) {
        super(_io);
        this._parent = _parent;
        this._root = _root == null ? this : _root;
        _read();
    }
    private void _read() {
        this.magic = this._io.readBytes(8);
        if (!(Arrays.equals(magic(), new byte[] { 66, 79, 79, 84, 76, 68, 82, 33 }))) {
            throw new KaitaiStream.ValidationNotEqualError(new byte[] { 66, 79, 79, 84, 76, 68, 82, 33 }, magic(), _io(), "/seq/0");
        }
        this.numImages = this._io.readU4le();
        this.ofsImgBodies = this._io.readU4le();
        this.bootloaderSize = this._io.readU4le();
        imgHeaders = new ArrayList<ImgHeader>(((Number) (numImages())).intValue());
        for (int i = 0; i < numImages(); i++) {
            this.imgHeaders.add(new ImgHeader(this._io, this, _root));
        }
    }
    public static class ImgHeader extends KaitaiStruct {
        public static ImgHeader fromFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
            return new ImgHeader(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(fileName));
        }

        public ImgHeader(KaitaiStream _io) {
            this(_io, null, null);
        }

        public ImgHeader(KaitaiStream _io, AndroidBootldrQcom _parent) {
            this(_io, _parent, null);
        }

        public ImgHeader(KaitaiStream _io, AndroidBootldrQcom _parent, AndroidBootldrQcom _root) {
            super(_io);
            this._parent = _parent;
            this._root = _root;
            _read();
        }
        private void _read() {
            this.name = new String(KaitaiStream.bytesTerminate(this._io.readBytes(64), (byte) 0, false), Charset.forName("ASCII"));
            this.lenBody = this._io.readU4le();
        }
        private String name;
        private long lenBody;
        private AndroidBootldrQcom _root;
        private AndroidBootldrQcom _parent;
        public String name() { return name; }
        public long lenBody() { return lenBody; }
        public AndroidBootldrQcom _root() { return _root; }
        public AndroidBootldrQcom _parent() { return _parent; }
    }
    public static class ImgBody extends KaitaiStruct {

        public ImgBody(KaitaiStream _io, int idx) {
            this(_io, null, null, idx);
        }

        public ImgBody(KaitaiStream _io, AndroidBootldrQcom _parent, int idx) {
            this(_io, _parent, null, idx);
        }

        public ImgBody(KaitaiStream _io, AndroidBootldrQcom _parent, AndroidBootldrQcom _root, int idx) {
            super(_io);
            this._parent = _parent;
            this._root = _root;
            this.idx = idx;
            _read();
        }
        private void _read() {
            this.body = this._io.readBytes(imgHeader().lenBody());
        }
        private ImgHeader imgHeader;
        public ImgHeader imgHeader() {
            if (this.imgHeader != null)
                return this.imgHeader;
            this.imgHeader = _root.imgHeaders().get((int) idx());
            return this.imgHeader;
        }
        private byte[] body;
        private int idx;
        private AndroidBootldrQcom _root;
        private AndroidBootldrQcom _parent;
        public byte[] body() { return body; }
        public int idx() { return idx; }
        public AndroidBootldrQcom _root() { return _root; }
        public AndroidBootldrQcom _parent() { return _parent; }
    }
    private ArrayList<ImgBody> imgBodies;
    public ArrayList<ImgBody> imgBodies() {
        if (this.imgBodies != null)
            return this.imgBodies;
        long _pos = this._io.pos();
        this._io.seek(ofsImgBodies());
        imgBodies = new ArrayList<ImgBody>(((Number) (numImages())).intValue());
        for (int i = 0; i < numImages(); i++) {
            this.imgBodies.add(new ImgBody(this._io, this, _root, i));
        }
        this._io.seek(_pos);
        return this.imgBodies;
    }
    private byte[] magic;
    private long numImages;
    private long ofsImgBodies;
    private long bootloaderSize;
    private ArrayList<ImgHeader> imgHeaders;
    private AndroidBootldrQcom _root;
    private KaitaiStruct _parent;
    public byte[] magic() { return magic; }
    public long numImages() { return numImages; }
    public long ofsImgBodies() { return ofsImgBodies; }

    /**
     * According to all available `releasetools.py` versions from AOSP (links are
     * in the top-level `/doc`), this should determine only the size of
     * `img_bodies` - there is [an assertion](
     * https://android.googlesource.com/device/lge/hammerhead/+/7618a7d/releasetools.py#167)
     * for it.
     * 
     * However, files for certain Pixel devices (see `/doc`) apparently declare
     * the entire file size here (i.e. including also fields from `magic` to
     * `img_headers`). So if you interpreted `bootloader_size` as the size of
     * `img_bodies` substream in these files, you would exceed the end of file.
     * Although you could check that it fits in the file before attempting to
     * create a substream of that size, you wouldn't know if it's meant to
     * specify the size of just `img_bodies` or the size of the entire bootloader
     * payload (whereas there may be additional data after the end of payload)
     * until parsing `img_bodies` (or at least summing sizes from `img_headers`,
     * but that's stupid).
     * 
     * So this field isn't reliable enough to be used as the size of any
     * substream. If you want to check if it has a reasonable value, do so in
     * your application code.
     */
    public long bootloaderSize() { return bootloaderSize; }
    public ArrayList<ImgHeader> imgHeaders() { return imgHeaders; }
    public AndroidBootldrQcom _root() { return _root; }
    public KaitaiStruct _parent() { return _parent; }
}