Qualcomm Snapdragon (MSM) bootloader.img format: Python parsing library

A bootloader for Android used on various devices powered by Qualcomm Snapdragon chips:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors

Although not all of the Snapdragon based Android devices use this particular bootloader format, it is known that devices with the following chips have used it (example devices are given for each chip):

(*) bootloader_size is equal to the size of the whole file (not just img_bodies as usual).

(**) There are some data after the end of img_bodies.


On the other hand, devices with these chips do not use this format:


The bootloader-*.img samples referenced above originally come from factory images packed in ZIP archives that can be found on the page Factory Images for Nexus and Pixel Devices on the Google Developers site. Note that the codenames on that page may be different than the ones that are written in the list above. That's because the Google page indicates ROM codenames in headings (e.g. "occam" for Nexus 4) but the above list uses model codenames (e.g. "mako" for Nexus 4) because that is how the original bootloader-*.img files are identified. For most devices, however, these code names are the same.

File extension

img

KS implementation details

License: CC0-1.0

This page hosts a formal specification of Qualcomm Snapdragon (MSM) bootloader.img format using Kaitai Struct. This specification can be automatically translated into a variety of programming languages to get a parsing library.

Usage

Runtime library

All parsing code for Python generated by Kaitai Struct depends on the Python runtime library. You have to install it before you can parse data.

The Python runtime library can be installed from PyPI:

python3 -m pip install kaitaistruct

Code

Parse a local file and get structure in memory:

data = AndroidBootldrQcom.from_file("path/to/local/file.img")

Or parse structure from a bytes:

from kaitaistruct import KaitaiStream, BytesIO

raw = b"\x00\x01\x02..."
data = AndroidBootldrQcom(KaitaiStream(BytesIO(raw)))

After that, one can get various attributes from the structure by invoking getter methods like:

data.bootloader_size # => According to all available `releasetools.py` versions from AOSP (links are
in the top-level `/doc`), this should determine only the size of
`img_bodies` - there is [an assertion](
https://android.googlesource.com/device/lge/hammerhead/+/7618a7d/releasetools.py#167)
for it.

However, files for certain Pixel devices (see `/doc`) apparently declare
the entire file size here (i.e. including also fields from `magic` to
`img_headers`). So if you interpreted `bootloader_size` as the size of
`img_bodies` substream in these files, you would exceed the end of file.
Although you could check that it fits in the file before attempting to
create a substream of that size, you wouldn't know if it's meant to
specify the size of just `img_bodies` or the size of the entire bootloader
payload (whereas there may be additional data after the end of payload)
until parsing `img_bodies` (or at least summing sizes from `img_headers`,
but that's stupid).

So this field isn't reliable enough to be used as the size of any
substream. If you want to check if it has a reasonable value, do so in
your application code.

Python source code to parse Qualcomm Snapdragon (MSM) bootloader.img format

android_bootldr_qcom.py

# This is a generated file! Please edit source .ksy file and use kaitai-struct-compiler to rebuild

from pkg_resources import parse_version
import kaitaistruct
from kaitaistruct import KaitaiStruct, KaitaiStream, BytesIO


if parse_version(kaitaistruct.__version__) < parse_version('0.9'):
    raise Exception("Incompatible Kaitai Struct Python API: 0.9 or later is required, but you have %s" % (kaitaistruct.__version__))

class AndroidBootldrQcom(KaitaiStruct):
    """A bootloader for Android used on various devices powered by Qualcomm
    Snapdragon chips:
    
    <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors>
    
    Although not all of the Snapdragon based Android devices use this particular
    bootloader format, it is known that devices with the following chips have used
    it (example devices are given for each chip):
    
    * APQ8064 ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_S4_Pro))
      - Nexus 4 "mako": [sample][sample-mako] ([other samples][others-mako]),
        [releasetools.py](https://android.googlesource.com/device/lge/mako/+/33f0114/releasetools.py#98)
    
    * MSM8974AA ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_800,_801_and_805_(2013/14)))
      - Nexus 5 "hammerhead": [sample][sample-hammerhead] ([other samples][others-hammerhead]),
        [releasetools.py](https://android.googlesource.com/device/lge/hammerhead/+/7618a7d/releasetools.py#116)
    
    * MSM8992 ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_808_and_810_(2015)))
      - Nexus 5X "bullhead": [sample][sample-bullhead] ([other samples][others-bullhead]),
        [releasetools.py](https://android.googlesource.com/device/lge/bullhead/+/2994b6b/releasetools.py#126)
    
    * APQ8064-1AA ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_600_(2013)))
      - Nexus 7 \[2013] (Mobile) "deb" <a href="#doc-note-data-after-img-bodies">(\**)</a>: [sample][sample-deb] ([other samples][others-deb]),
        [releasetools.py](https://android.googlesource.com/device/asus/deb/+/14c1638/releasetools.py#105)
      - Nexus 7 \[2013] (Wi-Fi) "flo" <a href="#doc-note-data-after-img-bodies">(\**)</a>: [sample][sample-flo] ([other samples][others-flo]),
        [releasetools.py](https://android.googlesource.com/device/asus/flo/+/9d9fee9/releasetools.py#130)
    
    * MSM8996 Pro-AB ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_820_and_821_(2016)))
      - Pixel "sailfish" <a href="#doc-note-bootloader-size">(\*)</a>:
        [sample][sample-sailfish] ([other samples][others-sailfish])
      - Pixel XL "marlin" <a href="#doc-note-bootloader-size">(\*)</a>:
        [sample][sample-marlin] ([other samples][others-marlin])
    
    * MSM8998 ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_835_(2017)))
      - Pixel 2 "walleye" <a href="#doc-note-bootloader-size">(\*)</a>: [sample][sample-walleye] ([other samples][others-walleye])
      - Pixel 2 XL "taimen": [sample][sample-taimen] ([other samples][others-taimen])
    
    <small id="doc-note-bootloader-size">(\*)
    `bootloader_size` is equal to the size of the whole file (not just `img_bodies` as usual).
    </small>
    
    <small id="doc-note-data-after-img-bodies">(\**)
    There are some data after the end of `img_bodies`.
    </small>
    
    ---
    
    On the other hand, devices with these chips **do not** use this format:
    
    * <del>APQ8084</del> ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_800,_801_and_805_(2013/14)))
      - Nexus 6 "shamu": [sample][foreign-sample-shamu] ([other samples][foreign-others-shamu]),
        [releasetools.py](https://android.googlesource.com/device/moto/shamu/+/df9354d/releasetools.py#12) -
        uses "Motoboot packed image format" instead
    
    * <del>MSM8994</del> ([devices](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devices_using_Qualcomm_Snapdragon_processors#Snapdragon_808_and_810_(2015)))
      - Nexus 6P "angler": [sample][foreign-sample-angler] ([other samples][foreign-others-angler]),
        [releasetools.py](https://android.googlesource.com/device/huawei/angler/+/cf92cd8/releasetools.py#29) -
        uses "Huawei Bootloader packed image format" instead
    
    [sample-mako]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=96039337900113996 "bootloader-mako-makoz30f.img"
    [others-mako]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-mako&type=files
    
    [sample-hammerhead]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=385035244224410247 "bootloader-hammerhead-hhz20h.img"
    [others-hammerhead]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-hammerhead&type=files
    
    [sample-bullhead]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=11410963190603870177 "bootloader-bullhead-bhz32c.img"
    [others-bullhead]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-bullhead&type=files
    
    [sample-deb]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=23501681358552487 "bootloader-deb-flo-04.02.img"
    [others-deb]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-deb-flo&type=files
    
    [sample-flo]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=23991606952593542 "bootloader-flo-flo-04.05.img"
    [others-flo]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-flo-flo&type=files
    
    [sample-sailfish]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=6006931924117907154 "bootloader-sailfish-8996-012001-1904111134.img"
    [others-sailfish]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-sailfish&type=files
    
    [sample-marlin]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=6006931924117907131 "bootloader-marlin-8996-012001-1904111134.img"
    [others-marlin]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-marlin&type=files
    
    [sample-walleye]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=14943124697586348540 "bootloader-walleye-mw8998-003.0085.00.img"
    [others-walleye]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-walleye&type=files
    
    [sample-taimen]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=14943124697586348536 "bootloader-taimen-tmz30m.img"
    [others-taimen]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-taimen&type=files
    
    [foreign-sample-shamu]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=745849072291678307 "bootloader-shamu-moto-apq8084-72.04.img"
    [foreign-others-shamu]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-shamu&type=files
    
    [foreign-sample-angler]: https://androidfilehost.com/?fid=11410963190603870158 "bootloader-angler-angler-03.84.img"
    [foreign-others-angler]: https://androidfilehost.com/?w=search&s=bootloader-angler&type=files
    
    ---
    
    The `bootloader-*.img` samples referenced above originally come from factory
    images packed in ZIP archives that can be found on the page [Factory Images
    for Nexus and Pixel Devices](https://developers.google.com/android/images) on
    the Google Developers site. Note that the codenames on that page may be
    different than the ones that are written in the list above. That's because the
    Google page indicates **ROM codenames** in headings (e.g. "occam" for Nexus 4)
    but the above list uses **model codenames** (e.g. "mako" for Nexus 4) because
    that is how the original `bootloader-*.img` files are identified. For most
    devices, however, these code names are the same.
    
    .. seealso::
       Source - https://android.googlesource.com/device/lge/hammerhead/+/7618a7d/releasetools.py
    """
    def __init__(self, _io, _parent=None, _root=None):
        self._io = _io
        self._parent = _parent
        self._root = _root if _root else self
        self._read()

    def _read(self):
        self.magic = self._io.read_bytes(8)
        if not self.magic == b"\x42\x4F\x4F\x54\x4C\x44\x52\x21":
            raise kaitaistruct.ValidationNotEqualError(b"\x42\x4F\x4F\x54\x4C\x44\x52\x21", self.magic, self._io, u"/seq/0")
        self.num_images = self._io.read_u4le()
        self.ofs_img_bodies = self._io.read_u4le()
        self.bootloader_size = self._io.read_u4le()
        self.img_headers = [None] * (self.num_images)
        for i in range(self.num_images):
            self.img_headers[i] = AndroidBootldrQcom.ImgHeader(self._io, self, self._root)


    class ImgHeader(KaitaiStruct):
        def __init__(self, _io, _parent=None, _root=None):
            self._io = _io
            self._parent = _parent
            self._root = _root if _root else self
            self._read()

        def _read(self):
            self.name = (KaitaiStream.bytes_terminate(self._io.read_bytes(64), 0, False)).decode(u"ASCII")
            self.len_body = self._io.read_u4le()


    class ImgBody(KaitaiStruct):
        def __init__(self, idx, _io, _parent=None, _root=None):
            self._io = _io
            self._parent = _parent
            self._root = _root if _root else self
            self.idx = idx
            self._read()

        def _read(self):
            self.body = self._io.read_bytes(self.img_header.len_body)

        @property
        def img_header(self):
            if hasattr(self, '_m_img_header'):
                return self._m_img_header if hasattr(self, '_m_img_header') else None

            self._m_img_header = self._root.img_headers[self.idx]
            return self._m_img_header if hasattr(self, '_m_img_header') else None


    @property
    def img_bodies(self):
        if hasattr(self, '_m_img_bodies'):
            return self._m_img_bodies if hasattr(self, '_m_img_bodies') else None

        _pos = self._io.pos()
        self._io.seek(self.ofs_img_bodies)
        self._m_img_bodies = [None] * (self.num_images)
        for i in range(self.num_images):
            self._m_img_bodies[i] = AndroidBootldrQcom.ImgBody(i, self._io, self, self._root)

        self._io.seek(_pos)
        return self._m_img_bodies if hasattr(self, '_m_img_bodies') else None