Scream Tracker 3 module: Java parsing library

Scream Tracker 3 module is a tracker music file format that, as all tracker music, bundles both sound samples and instructions on which notes to play. It originates from a Scream Tracker 3 music editor (1994) by Future Crew, derived from original Scream Tracker 2 (.stm) module format.

Instrument descriptions in S3M format allow to use either digital samples or setup and control AdLib (OPL2) synth.

Music is organized in so called patterns. "Pattern" is a generally a 64-row long table, which instructs which notes to play on which time measure. "Patterns" are played one-by-one in a sequence determined by orders, which is essentially an array of pattern IDs

  • this way it's possible to reuse certain patterns more than once for repetitive musical phrases.

File extension

s3m

KS implementation details

License: CC0-1.0

References

This page hosts a formal specification of Scream Tracker 3 module using Kaitai Struct. This specification can be automatically translated into a variety of programming languages to get a parsing library.

Usage

Runtime library

All parsing code for Java generated by Kaitai Struct depends on the Java runtime library. You have to install it before you can parse data.

The Java runtime library is published in the Maven Central Repository. Refer to the artifact page for instructions how to add it into your project with the build tool that you use.

Code

Parse a local file and get structure in memory:

S3m data = S3m.fromFile("path/to/local/file.s3m");

Or parse structure from a byte array:

byte[] someArray = new byte[] { ... };
S3m data = new S3m(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(someArray));

After that, one can get various attributes from the structure by invoking getter methods like:

data.numOrders() // => Number of orders in a song

Java source code to parse Scream Tracker 3 module

S3m.java

// This is a generated file! Please edit source .ksy file and use kaitai-struct-compiler to rebuild

import io.kaitai.struct.ByteBufferKaitaiStream;
import io.kaitai.struct.KaitaiStruct;
import io.kaitai.struct.KaitaiStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.HashMap;


/**
 * Scream Tracker 3 module is a tracker music file format that, as all
 * tracker music, bundles both sound samples and instructions on which
 * notes to play. It originates from a Scream Tracker 3 music editor
 * (1994) by Future Crew, derived from original Scream Tracker 2 (.stm)
 * module format.
 * 
 * Instrument descriptions in S3M format allow to use either digital
 * samples or setup and control AdLib (OPL2) synth.
 * 
 * Music is organized in so called `patterns`. "Pattern" is a generally
 * a 64-row long table, which instructs which notes to play on which
 * time measure. "Patterns" are played one-by-one in a sequence
 * determined by `orders`, which is essentially an array of pattern IDs
 * - this way it's possible to reuse certain patterns more than once
 * for repetitive musical phrases.
 * @see <a href="http://hackipedia.org/browse.cgi/File%20formats/Music%20tracker/S3M%2c%20ScreamTracker%203/Scream%20Tracker%203.20%20by%20Future%20Crew.txt">Source</a>
 */
public class S3m extends KaitaiStruct {
    public static S3m fromFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
        return new S3m(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(fileName));
    }

    public S3m(KaitaiStream _io) {
        this(_io, null, null);
    }

    public S3m(KaitaiStream _io, KaitaiStruct _parent) {
        this(_io, _parent, null);
    }

    public S3m(KaitaiStream _io, KaitaiStruct _parent, S3m _root) {
        super(_io);
        this._parent = _parent;
        this._root = _root == null ? this : _root;
        _read();
    }
    private void _read() {
        this.songName = KaitaiStream.bytesTerminate(this._io.readBytes(28), (byte) 0, false);
        this.magic1 = this._io.readBytes(1);
        if (!(Arrays.equals(magic1(), new byte[] { 26 }))) {
            throw new KaitaiStream.ValidationNotEqualError(new byte[] { 26 }, magic1(), _io(), "/seq/1");
        }
        this.fileType = this._io.readU1();
        this.reserved1 = this._io.readBytes(2);
        this.numOrders = this._io.readU2le();
        this.numInstruments = this._io.readU2le();
        this.numPatterns = this._io.readU2le();
        this.flags = this._io.readU2le();
        this.version = this._io.readU2le();
        this.samplesFormat = this._io.readU2le();
        this.magic2 = this._io.readBytes(4);
        if (!(Arrays.equals(magic2(), new byte[] { 83, 67, 82, 77 }))) {
            throw new KaitaiStream.ValidationNotEqualError(new byte[] { 83, 67, 82, 77 }, magic2(), _io(), "/seq/10");
        }
        this.globalVolume = this._io.readU1();
        this.initialSpeed = this._io.readU1();
        this.initialTempo = this._io.readU1();
        this.isStereo = this._io.readBitsIntBe(1) != 0;
        this.masterVolume = this._io.readBitsIntBe(7);
        this._io.alignToByte();
        this.ultraClickRemoval = this._io.readU1();
        this.hasCustomPan = this._io.readU1();
        this.reserved2 = this._io.readBytes(8);
        this.ofsSpecial = this._io.readU2le();
        channels = new ArrayList<Channel>(((Number) (32)).intValue());
        for (int i = 0; i < 32; i++) {
            this.channels.add(new Channel(this._io, this, _root));
        }
        this.orders = this._io.readBytes(numOrders());
        instruments = new ArrayList<InstrumentPtr>(((Number) (numInstruments())).intValue());
        for (int i = 0; i < numInstruments(); i++) {
            this.instruments.add(new InstrumentPtr(this._io, this, _root));
        }
        patterns = new ArrayList<PatternPtr>(((Number) (numPatterns())).intValue());
        for (int i = 0; i < numPatterns(); i++) {
            this.patterns.add(new PatternPtr(this._io, this, _root));
        }
        if (hasCustomPan() == 252) {
            channelPans = new ArrayList<ChannelPan>(((Number) (32)).intValue());
            for (int i = 0; i < 32; i++) {
                this.channelPans.add(new ChannelPan(this._io, this, _root));
            }
        }
    }
    public static class ChannelPan extends KaitaiStruct {
        public static ChannelPan fromFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
            return new ChannelPan(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(fileName));
        }

        public ChannelPan(KaitaiStream _io) {
            this(_io, null, null);
        }

        public ChannelPan(KaitaiStream _io, S3m _parent) {
            this(_io, _parent, null);
        }

        public ChannelPan(KaitaiStream _io, S3m _parent, S3m _root) {
            super(_io);
            this._parent = _parent;
            this._root = _root;
            _read();
        }
        private void _read() {
            this.reserved1 = this._io.readBitsIntBe(2);
            this.hasCustomPan = this._io.readBitsIntBe(1) != 0;
            this.reserved2 = this._io.readBitsIntBe(1) != 0;
            this.pan = this._io.readBitsIntBe(4);
        }
        private long reserved1;
        private boolean hasCustomPan;
        private boolean reserved2;
        private long pan;
        private S3m _root;
        private S3m _parent;
        public long reserved1() { return reserved1; }

        /**
         * If true, then use a custom pan setting provided in the `pan`
         * field. If false, the channel would use the default setting
         * (0x7 for mono, 0x3 or 0xc for stereo).
         */
        public boolean hasCustomPan() { return hasCustomPan; }
        public boolean reserved2() { return reserved2; }
        public long pan() { return pan; }
        public S3m _root() { return _root; }
        public S3m _parent() { return _parent; }
    }
    public static class PatternCell extends KaitaiStruct {
        public static PatternCell fromFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
            return new PatternCell(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(fileName));
        }

        public PatternCell(KaitaiStream _io) {
            this(_io, null, null);
        }

        public PatternCell(KaitaiStream _io, S3m.PatternCells _parent) {
            this(_io, _parent, null);
        }

        public PatternCell(KaitaiStream _io, S3m.PatternCells _parent, S3m _root) {
            super(_io);
            this._parent = _parent;
            this._root = _root;
            _read();
        }
        private void _read() {
            this.hasFx = this._io.readBitsIntBe(1) != 0;
            this.hasVolume = this._io.readBitsIntBe(1) != 0;
            this.hasNoteAndInstrument = this._io.readBitsIntBe(1) != 0;
            this.channelNum = this._io.readBitsIntBe(5);
            this._io.alignToByte();
            if (hasNoteAndInstrument()) {
                this.note = this._io.readU1();
            }
            if (hasNoteAndInstrument()) {
                this.instrument = this._io.readU1();
            }
            if (hasVolume()) {
                this.volume = this._io.readU1();
            }
            if (hasFx()) {
                this.fxType = this._io.readU1();
            }
            if (hasFx()) {
                this.fxValue = this._io.readU1();
            }
        }
        private boolean hasFx;
        private boolean hasVolume;
        private boolean hasNoteAndInstrument;
        private long channelNum;
        private Integer note;
        private Integer instrument;
        private Integer volume;
        private Integer fxType;
        private Integer fxValue;
        private S3m _root;
        private S3m.PatternCells _parent;
        public boolean hasFx() { return hasFx; }
        public boolean hasVolume() { return hasVolume; }
        public boolean hasNoteAndInstrument() { return hasNoteAndInstrument; }
        public long channelNum() { return channelNum; }
        public Integer note() { return note; }
        public Integer instrument() { return instrument; }
        public Integer volume() { return volume; }
        public Integer fxType() { return fxType; }
        public Integer fxValue() { return fxValue; }
        public S3m _root() { return _root; }
        public S3m.PatternCells _parent() { return _parent; }
    }
    public static class PatternCells extends KaitaiStruct {
        public static PatternCells fromFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
            return new PatternCells(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(fileName));
        }

        public PatternCells(KaitaiStream _io) {
            this(_io, null, null);
        }

        public PatternCells(KaitaiStream _io, S3m.Pattern _parent) {
            this(_io, _parent, null);
        }

        public PatternCells(KaitaiStream _io, S3m.Pattern _parent, S3m _root) {
            super(_io);
            this._parent = _parent;
            this._root = _root;
            _read();
        }
        private void _read() {
            this.cells = new ArrayList<PatternCell>();
            {
                int i = 0;
                while (!this._io.isEof()) {
                    this.cells.add(new PatternCell(this._io, this, _root));
                    i++;
                }
            }
        }
        private ArrayList<PatternCell> cells;
        private S3m _root;
        private S3m.Pattern _parent;
        public ArrayList<PatternCell> cells() { return cells; }
        public S3m _root() { return _root; }
        public S3m.Pattern _parent() { return _parent; }
    }
    public static class Channel extends KaitaiStruct {
        public static Channel fromFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
            return new Channel(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(fileName));
        }

        public Channel(KaitaiStream _io) {
            this(_io, null, null);
        }

        public Channel(KaitaiStream _io, S3m _parent) {
            this(_io, _parent, null);
        }

        public Channel(KaitaiStream _io, S3m _parent, S3m _root) {
            super(_io);
            this._parent = _parent;
            this._root = _root;
            _read();
        }
        private void _read() {
            this.isDisabled = this._io.readBitsIntBe(1) != 0;
            this.chType = this._io.readBitsIntBe(7);
        }
        private boolean isDisabled;
        private long chType;
        private S3m _root;
        private S3m _parent;
        public boolean isDisabled() { return isDisabled; }

        /**
         * Channel type (0..7 = left sample channels, 8..15 = right sample channels, 16..31 = AdLib synth channels)
         */
        public long chType() { return chType; }
        public S3m _root() { return _root; }
        public S3m _parent() { return _parent; }
    }

    /**
     * Custom 3-byte integer, stored in mixed endian manner.
     */
    public static class SwappedU3 extends KaitaiStruct {
        public static SwappedU3 fromFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
            return new SwappedU3(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(fileName));
        }

        public SwappedU3(KaitaiStream _io) {
            this(_io, null, null);
        }

        public SwappedU3(KaitaiStream _io, S3m.Instrument.Sampled _parent) {
            this(_io, _parent, null);
        }

        public SwappedU3(KaitaiStream _io, S3m.Instrument.Sampled _parent, S3m _root) {
            super(_io);
            this._parent = _parent;
            this._root = _root;
            _read();
        }
        private void _read() {
            this.hi = this._io.readU1();
            this.lo = this._io.readU2le();
        }
        private Integer value;
        public Integer value() {
            if (this.value != null)
                return this.value;
            int _tmp = (int) ((lo() | (hi() << 16)));
            this.value = _tmp;
            return this.value;
        }
        private int hi;
        private int lo;
        private S3m _root;
        private S3m.Instrument.Sampled _parent;
        public int hi() { return hi; }
        public int lo() { return lo; }
        public S3m _root() { return _root; }
        public S3m.Instrument.Sampled _parent() { return _parent; }
    }
    public static class Pattern extends KaitaiStruct {
        public static Pattern fromFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
            return new Pattern(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(fileName));
        }

        public Pattern(KaitaiStream _io) {
            this(_io, null, null);
        }

        public Pattern(KaitaiStream _io, S3m.PatternPtr _parent) {
            this(_io, _parent, null);
        }

        public Pattern(KaitaiStream _io, S3m.PatternPtr _parent, S3m _root) {
            super(_io);
            this._parent = _parent;
            this._root = _root;
            _read();
        }
        private void _read() {
            this.size = this._io.readU2le();
            this._raw_body = this._io.readBytes((size() - 2));
            KaitaiStream _io__raw_body = new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(_raw_body);
            this.body = new PatternCells(_io__raw_body, this, _root);
        }
        private int size;
        private PatternCells body;
        private S3m _root;
        private S3m.PatternPtr _parent;
        private byte[] _raw_body;
        public int size() { return size; }
        public PatternCells body() { return body; }
        public S3m _root() { return _root; }
        public S3m.PatternPtr _parent() { return _parent; }
        public byte[] _raw_body() { return _raw_body; }
    }
    public static class PatternPtr extends KaitaiStruct {
        public static PatternPtr fromFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
            return new PatternPtr(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(fileName));
        }

        public PatternPtr(KaitaiStream _io) {
            this(_io, null, null);
        }

        public PatternPtr(KaitaiStream _io, S3m _parent) {
            this(_io, _parent, null);
        }

        public PatternPtr(KaitaiStream _io, S3m _parent, S3m _root) {
            super(_io);
            this._parent = _parent;
            this._root = _root;
            _read();
        }
        private void _read() {
            this.paraptr = this._io.readU2le();
        }
        private Pattern body;
        public Pattern body() {
            if (this.body != null)
                return this.body;
            long _pos = this._io.pos();
            this._io.seek((paraptr() * 16));
            this.body = new Pattern(this._io, this, _root);
            this._io.seek(_pos);
            return this.body;
        }
        private int paraptr;
        private S3m _root;
        private S3m _parent;
        public int paraptr() { return paraptr; }
        public S3m _root() { return _root; }
        public S3m _parent() { return _parent; }
    }
    public static class InstrumentPtr extends KaitaiStruct {
        public static InstrumentPtr fromFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
            return new InstrumentPtr(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(fileName));
        }

        public InstrumentPtr(KaitaiStream _io) {
            this(_io, null, null);
        }

        public InstrumentPtr(KaitaiStream _io, S3m _parent) {
            this(_io, _parent, null);
        }

        public InstrumentPtr(KaitaiStream _io, S3m _parent, S3m _root) {
            super(_io);
            this._parent = _parent;
            this._root = _root;
            _read();
        }
        private void _read() {
            this.paraptr = this._io.readU2le();
        }
        private Instrument body;
        public Instrument body() {
            if (this.body != null)
                return this.body;
            long _pos = this._io.pos();
            this._io.seek((paraptr() * 16));
            this.body = new Instrument(this._io, this, _root);
            this._io.seek(_pos);
            return this.body;
        }
        private int paraptr;
        private S3m _root;
        private S3m _parent;
        public int paraptr() { return paraptr; }
        public S3m _root() { return _root; }
        public S3m _parent() { return _parent; }
    }
    public static class Instrument extends KaitaiStruct {
        public static Instrument fromFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
            return new Instrument(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(fileName));
        }

        public enum InstTypes {
            SAMPLE(1),
            MELODIC(2),
            BASS_DRUM(3),
            SNARE_DRUM(4),
            TOM(5),
            CYMBAL(6),
            HIHAT(7);

            private final long id;
            InstTypes(long id) { this.id = id; }
            public long id() { return id; }
            private static final Map<Long, InstTypes> byId = new HashMap<Long, InstTypes>(7);
            static {
                for (InstTypes e : InstTypes.values())
                    byId.put(e.id(), e);
            }
            public static InstTypes byId(long id) { return byId.get(id); }
        }

        public Instrument(KaitaiStream _io) {
            this(_io, null, null);
        }

        public Instrument(KaitaiStream _io, S3m.InstrumentPtr _parent) {
            this(_io, _parent, null);
        }

        public Instrument(KaitaiStream _io, S3m.InstrumentPtr _parent, S3m _root) {
            super(_io);
            this._parent = _parent;
            this._root = _root;
            _read();
        }
        private void _read() {
            this.type = InstTypes.byId(this._io.readU1());
            this.filename = KaitaiStream.bytesTerminate(this._io.readBytes(12), (byte) 0, false);
            {
                InstTypes on = type();
                if (on != null) {
                    switch (type()) {
                    case SAMPLE: {
                        this.body = new Sampled(this._io, this, _root);
                        break;
                    }
                    default: {
                        this.body = new Adlib(this._io, this, _root);
                        break;
                    }
                    }
                } else {
                    this.body = new Adlib(this._io, this, _root);
                }
            }
            this.tuningHz = this._io.readU4le();
            this.reserved2 = this._io.readBytes(12);
            this.sampleName = KaitaiStream.bytesTerminate(this._io.readBytes(28), (byte) 0, false);
            this.magic = this._io.readBytes(4);
            if (!(Arrays.equals(magic(), new byte[] { 83, 67, 82, 83 }))) {
                throw new KaitaiStream.ValidationNotEqualError(new byte[] { 83, 67, 82, 83 }, magic(), _io(), "/types/instrument/seq/6");
            }
        }
        public static class Sampled extends KaitaiStruct {
            public static Sampled fromFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
                return new Sampled(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(fileName));
            }

            public Sampled(KaitaiStream _io) {
                this(_io, null, null);
            }

            public Sampled(KaitaiStream _io, S3m.Instrument _parent) {
                this(_io, _parent, null);
            }

            public Sampled(KaitaiStream _io, S3m.Instrument _parent, S3m _root) {
                super(_io);
                this._parent = _parent;
                this._root = _root;
                _read();
            }
            private void _read() {
                this.paraptrSample = new SwappedU3(this._io, this, _root);
                this.lenSample = this._io.readU4le();
                this.loopBegin = this._io.readU4le();
                this.loopEnd = this._io.readU4le();
                this.defaultVolume = this._io.readU1();
                this.reserved1 = this._io.readU1();
                this.isPacked = this._io.readU1();
                this.flags = this._io.readU1();
            }
            private byte[] sample;
            public byte[] sample() {
                if (this.sample != null)
                    return this.sample;
                long _pos = this._io.pos();
                this._io.seek((paraptrSample().value() * 16));
                this.sample = this._io.readBytes(lenSample());
                this._io.seek(_pos);
                return this.sample;
            }
            private SwappedU3 paraptrSample;
            private long lenSample;
            private long loopBegin;
            private long loopEnd;
            private int defaultVolume;
            private int reserved1;
            private int isPacked;
            private int flags;
            private S3m _root;
            private S3m.Instrument _parent;
            public SwappedU3 paraptrSample() { return paraptrSample; }
            public long lenSample() { return lenSample; }
            public long loopBegin() { return loopBegin; }
            public long loopEnd() { return loopEnd; }

            /**
             * Default volume
             */
            public int defaultVolume() { return defaultVolume; }
            public int reserved1() { return reserved1; }

            /**
             * 0 = unpacked, 1 = DP30ADPCM packing
             */
            public int isPacked() { return isPacked; }
            public int flags() { return flags; }
            public S3m _root() { return _root; }
            public S3m.Instrument _parent() { return _parent; }
        }
        public static class Adlib extends KaitaiStruct {
            public static Adlib fromFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
                return new Adlib(new ByteBufferKaitaiStream(fileName));
            }

            public Adlib(KaitaiStream _io) {
                this(_io, null, null);
            }

            public Adlib(KaitaiStream _io, S3m.Instrument _parent) {
                this(_io, _parent, null);
            }

            public Adlib(KaitaiStream _io, S3m.Instrument _parent, S3m _root) {
                super(_io);
                this._parent = _parent;
                this._root = _root;
                _read();
            }
            private void _read() {
                this.reserved1 = this._io.readBytes(3);
                if (!(Arrays.equals(reserved1(), new byte[] { 0, 0, 0 }))) {
                    throw new KaitaiStream.ValidationNotEqualError(new byte[] { 0, 0, 0 }, reserved1(), _io(), "/types/instrument/types/adlib/seq/0");
                }
                this._unnamed1 = this._io.readBytes(16);
            }
            private byte[] reserved1;
            private byte[] _unnamed1;
            private S3m _root;
            private S3m.Instrument _parent;
            public byte[] reserved1() { return reserved1; }
            public byte[] _unnamed1() { return _unnamed1; }
            public S3m _root() { return _root; }
            public S3m.Instrument _parent() { return _parent; }
        }
        private InstTypes type;
        private byte[] filename;
        private KaitaiStruct body;
        private long tuningHz;
        private byte[] reserved2;
        private byte[] sampleName;
        private byte[] magic;
        private S3m _root;
        private S3m.InstrumentPtr _parent;
        public InstTypes type() { return type; }
        public byte[] filename() { return filename; }
        public KaitaiStruct body() { return body; }
        public long tuningHz() { return tuningHz; }
        public byte[] reserved2() { return reserved2; }
        public byte[] sampleName() { return sampleName; }
        public byte[] magic() { return magic; }
        public S3m _root() { return _root; }
        public S3m.InstrumentPtr _parent() { return _parent; }
    }
    private byte[] songName;
    private byte[] magic1;
    private int fileType;
    private byte[] reserved1;
    private int numOrders;
    private int numInstruments;
    private int numPatterns;
    private int flags;
    private int version;
    private int samplesFormat;
    private byte[] magic2;
    private int globalVolume;
    private int initialSpeed;
    private int initialTempo;
    private boolean isStereo;
    private long masterVolume;
    private int ultraClickRemoval;
    private int hasCustomPan;
    private byte[] reserved2;
    private int ofsSpecial;
    private ArrayList<Channel> channels;
    private byte[] orders;
    private ArrayList<InstrumentPtr> instruments;
    private ArrayList<PatternPtr> patterns;
    private ArrayList<ChannelPan> channelPans;
    private S3m _root;
    private KaitaiStruct _parent;
    public byte[] songName() { return songName; }
    public byte[] magic1() { return magic1; }
    public int fileType() { return fileType; }
    public byte[] reserved1() { return reserved1; }

    /**
     * Number of orders in a song
     */
    public int numOrders() { return numOrders; }

    /**
     * Number of instruments in a song
     */
    public int numInstruments() { return numInstruments; }

    /**
     * Number of patterns in a song
     */
    public int numPatterns() { return numPatterns; }
    public int flags() { return flags; }

    /**
     * Scream Tracker version that was used to save this file
     */
    public int version() { return version; }

    /**
     * 1 = signed samples, 2 = unsigned samples
     */
    public int samplesFormat() { return samplesFormat; }
    public byte[] magic2() { return magic2; }
    public int globalVolume() { return globalVolume; }
    public int initialSpeed() { return initialSpeed; }
    public int initialTempo() { return initialTempo; }
    public boolean isStereo() { return isStereo; }
    public long masterVolume() { return masterVolume; }
    public int ultraClickRemoval() { return ultraClickRemoval; }
    public int hasCustomPan() { return hasCustomPan; }
    public byte[] reserved2() { return reserved2; }

    /**
     * Offset of special data, not used by Scream Tracker directly.
     */
    public int ofsSpecial() { return ofsSpecial; }
    public ArrayList<Channel> channels() { return channels; }
    public byte[] orders() { return orders; }
    public ArrayList<InstrumentPtr> instruments() { return instruments; }
    public ArrayList<PatternPtr> patterns() { return patterns; }
    public ArrayList<ChannelPan> channelPans() { return channelPans; }
    public S3m _root() { return _root; }
    public KaitaiStruct _parent() { return _parent; }
}